Monday, February 17, 2020

Research Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Research Paper - Essay Example As the world continue to apply information technology in various sectors such as banking, education, trade and entertainment, intellectual property issues have become even more complicated. This has led to the formulation of a new set of laws known as cyber laws. Consequently, cyber crimes are defined as any form of malpractice that involves tampering with computer based resources, cyber fraud, cyber based intimidation, and computer hackings are some of the major cyber crimes. These laws are incorporated in the information technology act, 2000. It is difficult to implement intellectual property rights without proper cyber laws and legislation. Intellectual property Patents A patent is a legal document that is issued by the federal government to an inventor. The document gives the owner exclusive rights of reproducing or participating in his innovation without threats from other developers. The right is meant to promote creativity and innovation in various industries2. Moreover, paten t rights allow members of the public to disclose innovations and other forms of technological advances in their respective industries3. Laws meant to protect intellectual property under patents have been criticized for certain ambiguities. This has necessitated constant reviews to make the required adjustments. Thus, suitable legislations should have clear definitions on patents and the extent to which patents can be applied. Furthermore, suitable legislation should set limits beyond which the legislations are considered to be violated. This is to safeguard innovators and other property developers from accusations of intellectual property theft. Trademarks Trademarks are quality assurance symbols and information used to identify the quality of a product. Ideally, trademarks are business items that are meant to protect manufacturers and traders. Tirade marks have often been accused of promoting monopoly trade, which may be harmful to the economy. This is because they promote the sale and continuity of popular products while they inconvenience inexperienced entrepreneurs. Trademarks are also used as sources of standards for a particular products and services. Copyrights Copyrights are constitutional property rights, which grant rightful owner, creators, or authors of certain material exclusive rights over their production and distribution. Copyrights provisions are meant to promote innovation and useful arts by offering incentives and protection to their owners. Ideally, copyrights protect intangible and original works including music, research, books, photographs, films, and computer software. Copyright is a collection of rights that include; the right to reproduce copyrighted material, rights to derive additional work, rights to distribution and public display. Each of these rights is protected under the information Technology Act of 2000. Cyber crime A cyber crime is regarded as any crime or offense that violates The Information Technology Act 2000. This rede finition leaves out major issues and provisions that threaten activities in the real world. Moreover, cyber laws conflicts with freedom of information and cyber space. Certainly, cyber laws cannot work in isolation and they require adequate collaboration with other supportive or related laws. For example, a person who is accused of sending intimidating massages over the internet will be charged with criminal intimidation provisions that are contained in the common laws4. Further, a person

Monday, February 3, 2020

What fueled the bitter history with regard to India and Pakistan with Essay

What fueled the bitter history with regard to India and Pakistan with relation to government and political beliefs - Essay Example This brief mention of just some of the issues between India and Pakistan is just a preview of the intense rivalry between the two countries. And we haven't even reached the pre-colonial era for discussion till now. The bitter past, present and future of Indo-Pak relations is a reality that can not be ignored. The sheer magnitude of the number of disputes between India and Pakistan can not be denied. But beyond this ignorance and denial, one can safely delve into the past and analyze why it happened in the first place. The aim is then not to question any event or wonder what would be the present situation if any past event such as the 1971 separation of East Pakistan had not taken place. The aim is to provide insight and examine the factors behind facts such as colonialism and the partition of the sub-continent and understand their role on the present and the future of India and Pakistan and, in turn, the entire world.The eventful history of India and Pakistan gives plenty of reason t o attribute to their bitter rivalry. The wars fought in 1965, 1971 and 1947 are a testament to this; so are the various bombings that each country's intelligence agencies have planned on each other's country (Crossette, 2008). Both countries have constantly bombarded each other over the line of control and escalation of forces at the border to mount pressure on each other has become a frequent course of action. Kashmir still remains disputed territory with no sign of resolution in the coming future. Even the control of environmental resources such as water and its use (Indus Water Treaty) have been a cause of concern and argument for each country. It is important for Pakistan because India controls the disputed territory from which flows the most vital asset to mans existence i.e. water. This brief mention of just some of the issues between India and Pakistan is just a preview of the intense rivalry between the two countries. And we haven't even reached the pre-colonial era for discussion till now. Based on research, the author of this paper believes that perhaps one of the most important contributors to the partition and in turn, the rivalry between India and Pakistan is the colonialism of the Hindus and Muslims (Alavi, 2002). That is not to say that the entire future of Indo-Pak relations is to be blamed on the East India Company or the British Empire; but, it is hard to deny that the British are responsible for sowing the seeds of rivalry from as far back as the start of operations by East India Company. The author contends then that there are various factors behind the bitter Indo-Pak rivalry but the most pivotal is the colonialism and subsequent, ill planned exit by the British Empire in 1947. The British occupation in the sub continent not only created differen ces between the various segments of Hindus and Muslims but also left several issues unsettled, such as the accession of provinces (e.g. Kashmir) to either country. It is also believed that the nature of Muslim party politics was such that they followed onto the post-partition period till today and that the bitter history has been etched into the political relations of both countries thereby making the process of reconciliation extremely difficult. This paper will therefore address several issues or differences created by the East India Company and the subsequent British Rule in considerable detail. The first of these issues was the change in official language from Persian to English; this change created drastic differences between the 19th century ashrafi (upper class) Muslims and Hindus who were in competition against each other for state jobs (Alavi, 2002). At this point, it is important to shed some light on the salariat, who are defined by Hamza Alavi (2002) as an auxiliary class that was not the biggest class but certainly the most articulate class in the pre-independence era. These salariat were professionals that were able to get through higher education because of their family's income status. They held important state positions as lawyers or doctors and in other fields as well. The 19th century salariat began to lose key positions in the state